The application of water in sprinkler irrigation systems is done by splitting one or more water jets into a large number of small drops in the air, which fall on the ground in the form of artificial rain. The passage of water under pressure goes through small holes is what causes jet fractionation. With the aid, as a rule, of a pumping system, the water runs through a set of pipes generating the necessary pressure to drive the sprinklers.
The sprinkler is the mechanism responsible for spraying the water jet.
Among the main advantages presented by this method are the non-requirements of a process of systematization of the land, the availability of a larger cultivable area, the fact that there is no restriction on the application time and do not cause problems of soil erosion.
The drawbacks of spraying are: high initial cost, susceptibility to application interference due to wind, high evaporation losses from the water directly from the split jet, and the requirement for a high power motorcycle pump system depending on the area. It also happens that as the spray systems wet a considerable area of the ground, there is a proliferation of weeds and, due to the force of the impact of the drop on the soil surface, there can present surface sealing.
During sprinkler systems installation, the pipes are fixed to cover the entire irrigated area simultaneously. In this system, the plumbing is buried and covers the whole area, and partially permanent, in which the plumbing is portable and covers the entire irrigated area.
Since there is no pipeline movement from one location to another, it would theoretically be easier to irrigate the entire area at one time. However, this would involve the demand for a large amount of water at any given time. The area can then be divided into plots, which will be sequentially irrigated to cover the entire area.